POTENTIAL IMPACT OF TIME ON DNA DAMAGE, MICRONUCLEUS WITH LIVER CONTENTS AND FUNCTION AFTER PARTIAL HEPATECTOMY IN RATS | Asian Journal of Advances in Research

One of the most fascinating medical phenomenon is liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH). The aim of this study was to see how time (days) affected DNA damage, micronucleus, liver content (weight, water, and lipid percent), and function in male rats after PH. The weight of the liver, its water and lipid contents, as well as transaminases enzymes, bilirubin (BR), and protein levels, were all measured. DNA fragmentation, micronucleus (Mn) induction, and haemoglobin levels were also measured. By day 3, the liver weight had decreased dramatically and had returned to normal. However, lipid content increased dramatically, but by day 7, it had returned to normal. The water content of the regenerating liver rose in a similar way, and by day 28 it had returned to normal. By day 14, transaminases, Brill, and protein levels had decreased and returned to normal. In addition, by day 28, haemoglobin had decreased and returned to normal. When compared to control (day 0), DNA fragmentation and micronucleus frequency were significantly higher, but were returned to normal on days 7 and 28 for DNA and Mn, respectively. Finally, after a 70% partial hepatectomy (PH), liver regeneration was observed in male rats on the 3rd, 7th, and 14th days. Our findings may have clinical implications in human medicine.

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BUTTERFLIES DIVERSITY (LEPIDOPTERA: PAPILIONOIDEA) IN AGRO-ECOSYSTEMS OF TIRUCHIRAPPALLI DISTRICT OF TAMIL NADU, INDIA |UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY,

Aim: The present study is aimed to examine the diversity and relative abundance of butterflies.

Place and Duration of Study:  In different agroecosystem of Trichy during the period of October 2016 to November 2017.

Methodology: A preliminary survey was carried out during the day from 07.00 to 12.00 from October 2016 to November 2017. The transect walk was done once in a month. The specimens were collected with the insect collection net. The collected species were photographed and deposited in Zoology Department, Nehru Memorial College, Puthanampatti, Tamil Nadu, India.

Results: A total of 80 species were recorded from different agricultural areas at Trichy. Analysis of relative abundance revealed 64 species were classed as common and 16 species as uncommon.

Conclusion: From the results we also observed maximum species diversity and abundance in the month of January to June and October to November and there was a gradual decrease during the early summer from the month of March and it reached maximum in the May.

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ICHTHYOFAUNAL DIVERSITY AND WATER QUALITY OF PARAPPAR RESERVOIR IN KOLLAM DISTRICT, KERALA, INDIA | UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY

Parappar reservoir is the second largest irrigation project in Kerala. Water from the reservoir is also used for power generation and drinking purpose. The dam water is being distributed to three districts of Kerala such as Kollam, Pathanamthitta and Alappuzha. The surface water bodies, which are the most important source of water for human activities are unfortunately under severe environmental stress and are being threatened as a consequence of developmental activities. Reservoir fish production is gradually becoming a significant contributor to total inland production and often provides a relatively affordable source of fresh and good quality animal protein source to many rural communities. The present study is an attempt to assess the biodiversity of fish fauna in the Parappar reservoir with reference to physico-chemical parameters of water from the reservoir. Water samples and fish were collected monthly for a period of one year from October 2017 to September 2018. Water quality parameters such as water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, carbon dioxide and nitrate were selected for the present study. The result showed variations in the monthly mean values of all the water quality parameters tested. All the physico-chemical parameters tested were within the permissible limit as per the WHO standard (1993) and it was found suitable for fish production. The present study revealed the occurrence of 18 fish species belonging to 4 orders and 6 families. Shell fishe are totally absent during the entire study period. Cyprinidae dominated with eleven species and it is followed by Cichlidae, Bagridae, Channidae, Claridae and Heteropneustridae.

 

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EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF DIETS FOR CULTURE OF A POTENTIAL LIVE FEED, Euplotes Sp. (PROTOZOA, CILIOPHORA) | UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY

Ciliate protozoans such as Euplotes which are seen among the mass cultures of rotifers have the potential as a live feed for larvae and juveniles of the aquaculture species in hatchery operations. Free living ciliates are potential natural food of many fish larvae because of their smaller size. To obtain the culture of Euplotes sp., four diets were tested 1) Microalgae, Nannochloropsis oculata, 2) Isochrysis galbana, 3) Equal proportion of N. oculata and I. galbana and 4) Baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The ciliates were inoculated at a concentration of 50 cells mL-1. On day 5, Euplotes density reached highest in the groups fed the baker’s yeast (14600.00 ± 409.88 cells mL-1) in comparison with the other three media N. oculata (933.3 ± 659.29 cells mL-1 ); I. galbana N. oculata (966.67 ± 806.64 cells mL-1 ) and I. galbana (333.33 ± 103.28 cells mL-1 ). Six days culture is crucial because most of the marine fish larvae start their feeding by 5-7 days of post hatching. It was observed from the results that Baker’s yeast is highly significant (P<0.01) diet of Euplotes sp. in mass culture.

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PREVENTION OF Staphylococcus aureus CAUSING ECZEMA BY Glycyrrhiza glabra | UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY

Glycyrrhiza glabra is one of the therapeutic plants that show the adequacy for the disorderThus, the present study is an attempt to check the efficacy of G. glabra in the prevention and cure of eczema. “Phytochemicals” are non-nutritive compounds found or obtained from plants. It has been reported that Glycyrrhiza glabra plant extract is used to manage eczema, which has different phytochemical compounds. Eczema is caused by the causal organism, such as Staphylococcus aureus. Aspatate-semialdehyde-dehydrogenase is one of the key enzymes involved in its biochemical pathway. By using “Biovia Discovery Studio”, the “molecular docking of the phytochemicals” with the enzymes was studied. The strength of the interaction was evaluated based on “-CDOCKER energy and-CDOCKER interaction energy”. “High positive values for both the parameters indicated that out of different phytochemicals” 3-bromo-2-pentanol and liquiritigenin can effectively deactivate the aspatate-semialdehyde-dehydrogenase enzyme thereby interrupting the life cycle of S. aureus. The phytochemicals screening of the G. glabra root revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycocides, carbohydrates, starches, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, proteinsetc. The showed the memory enhancement, antimicrobial, anticancer activity. Many plants with their optional metabolites have a long history of use in current western medication and specific frameworks of customary medication and are the wellsprings of significant medications, such as “atropine, codeine, dioxin, morphine, quinine and vincristine and so on”. The utilization of home-grown medication in have created nations has extended forcefully in the last of the twentieth century. The pharmacological treatment of sickness started a while in the past with the utilization of herbs.

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PREVENTION OF Staphylococcus aureus CAUSING SKIN DISEASE BY Polianthes tuberose | UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY

Phytochemicals are biologically active non-nutritive compounds found in the plants. It has been reported that Polianthes tuberosa plant extract contains different phytochemicals that are traditionally used to cure skin disease. Skin disease is caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Two key enzymes like L-lactate dehydrogenase and IMP dehydrogenase are involved in the biochemical pathway. “Biovia Discovery Studio” was used for studying the molecular docking of the phytochemicals with the enzymes. The strength of the interaction was evaluated based on “-CDOCKER energy and-CDOCKER interaction energy”. High positive values for both the parameters indicated that on protein database code 3D4P, phytochemicals like Kameferol 3-o and Alpha-d glucoside can “effectively deactivated” the L-lactate dehydrogenase enzyme and on protein database code 6I0O, Kameferol 3-o can effectively deactivate the IMP “dehydrogenase enzyme” thereby interrupting the life cycle of Staphylococcus.

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PREVENTION OF Porphyromonas gingivalis CAUSING GUM DISEASE BY Salvia rosmarinus | UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY

Porphyromonas gingivalis is known as the causal organism of gum disease. One of the key enzymes involved in its biochemical pathway is gingipain R. The Biovia Discovery Studio is used to study about the molecular docking of phytochemicals with the enzyme. The strength of the interaction was evaluated based on               -CDOCKER energy and -CDOCKER interaction energy. High positive values for both the parameters indicated that out of different phytochemicals, alcohol can effectively deactivate the gingipain R enzyme thereby interrupting the life cycle of Porphyromonas gingivalis.

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PLANKTON DIVERSITY CHANGES WITH SLIGHT VARIATION IN PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF SOME LOTIC AND LENTIC WATER BODIES OF BANKURA DISTRICT OF WB, INDIA | UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY

Water is the main source of survival for all the living organisms. Still people use it in a very casual way. As a result of unaware use of water, some changes have taken place in physico-chemical parameters followed by plankton diversity of pond and river water of Bankura district, West Bengal, India. The district Bankura has ranked first in pisciculture (particularly in spawn production) within WB (according to the Office of the Additional Director of Fisheries, Bankura). The village Ramsagar of Onda Block of Bankura district is widely known for the fish spawn production in its more than 250 fish hatcheries spread over the village. The district town Bankura is also full of water bodies like ponds, reservoirs, rivers etc.; still no such outcome is there from pisciculture point of view. The present study mainly focused on the changes in plankton diversity due to slight change in physico- chemical parameters of the water. The sampling was done in the three main rivers of Bankura district namely Gandheswari, Sali and Dwarakeswar; and the five ponds and one reservoir (Mukutmanipur dam) of Bankura district, where in most cases the urban and rural residents are using the water bodies, regularly for their household and economical purposes like fish culture. The changes in various physico-chemical parameters including water and air temperature, pH, total hardness, total alkalinity, chloride ion, dissolved oxygen etc. were analyzed by consulting standard methods and their effects on plankton diversity was studied microscopically after collecting them through proper way. The result shows that the plankton diversity was high in the static water bodies, like pond and reservoir than the lotic water, like river. An interesting finding is, ponds with lower level of chloride ion concentration contain very high density of plankton (in S-52 and S-54) and low to moderate level of dissolved oxygen. Another finding is, out of the twelve studied water bodies, only two showed high, three showed moderate (S-56, S-58 and S-60) and the rest showed less plankton production. But, both the high productive and the two moderate productive ponds were unable to reach the mark of fish production. Only one moderate productive pond (S-60) showed commendable result from pisciculture point of view; may be due to using of proper organic manure in a very scientific way.

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HISTOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN THE INTESTINE OF Tilapia mossambica INDUCED BY ACUTE TOXICITY OF SODIUM FLUORIDE DURING SUMMER |UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY

The objective of this study was to investigate the toxic effect of sodium fluoride (NaF) on freshwater fish, Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambica). Acute toxicity for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs. exposure of LCvalue was 30.0 ppm and LC50 value was 54.0 ppm for 96 hrs. The histochemical observation revealed that the neutral mucosubstances and glycogen content of intestine Tilapia mossambica showed a progressive decrease in staining intensity to Periodic acid Schiff (PAS) and Alcian blue pH-1 – Periodic acid Schiff (AB1- PAS) showed a progressive increase in purple blue staining showed increased acidic mucosubstances (sulfomucins) and decrease neutral mucosubstances and glycogen over time of exposure. The histochemical changes indicate sodium fluoride is toxic to growth and survival of the species.

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IMPACT OF NEW GENERATION INSECTIC DES ON THE PUPAE OF TRICHOGRAMMA JAPONICUM (HYMENOPTERA : TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE) | UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY

Integrated pest management has been the cardinal strategy for plant protection since decades. Ever since efforts were made for holistic approach by integrating chemical and biological means for pest management, the biological tactics using egg parasitoid Trichogramma sp. against lepidopterous pests have given promising results. Chemicals especially new generation ones are gaining wide acceptance among the farming community due to their unique mode of action and Safety to natural enemies. In the present study, impact of new era chemicals have been evaluated against pupal stage of Trichogramma japonicum adopting insecticide dip method of bioassay technique as standardised by IOBC (International Organization for Biological Control of crop pests and Weeds). The periodic observations recorded for adult emergence showed that chlorant raniliprole 18.5% SC was harmless with a minimum reduction of adult emergence (5.55%) which was followed by flubendiamide 39.35% SC (13.50%) and buprofezin 25% SC (23.75%). Spinosad 2.5% SC and thiamethoxam 25% WG were slightly harmful with 38.88% and 50.92% reduction in adult emergence.

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