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An Improved Water Swirl Algorithm Approach for Formulation of Lower Order Model of Multivariable Linear Time Invariant Continuous System | Chapter  2 | New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 6

In this study, the Improved Water Swirl Algorithm (IWSA) is used to formulate a lower order Multi Input Multi Output (MIMO) model in transfer function form for a given perfectly stable higher order MIMO Continuous system. The Water Swirl Algorithm (WSA) is a swarm-based optimization algorithm that replicates how water finds its way to a sink drain. It analyses the flow and searching behaviour of water for drains and presents appropriate strength update equations for iteratively finding the best solution from a randomly generated search space. The boundary limitations restricting the search space are represented by the sink retaining the water particle. The strength of a water particle is determined by three factors: inertia, cognition, and social interaction. For all living things, water is an unavoidable ingredient in nature. The cognitive component of a water particle is split into two parts in the proposed Improved WSA: a good experience component and a worst experience component. The particle can bypass the previously visited worst spot and try to occupy the best position due to the inclusion of the worst experience component. This work proposes a weighted average method for reducing a higher order model formulation to a lower order one. The lower order model is chosen using the integral square error as a criterion. For commonizing the denominators of the individual lower order approximants so that a lower order MIMO model can be reported in the transfer function matrix form, an average approach has been developed. An example is used to demonstrate the proposed methodology.

Author (S) Details

M. Yuvaraju

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Anna University Regional Centre, Coimbatore, India.

N. Devarajan

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Government College of Technology, Coimbatore, India.



View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/NVST-V6/article/view/4130

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Development of High Efficiency Multi-Crystalline Inorganic Solar Cell Using Er+3 Based Plano Convex Lens| Chapter  3 | New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 6

The photovoltaic cell (PVC) is a semiconductor device whose primary objective is to generate vibrant clean energy from sunlight. PVC was classified into three major classes by technology: a) Organic, b) Inorganic, and c) Hybrid. PVC users state unequivocally that installed PVC is incoherent and that electric generation is inadequate. The solution to manufacture consistent electricity using PVC is insurmountable, and researchers are unaware of PVC’s resurrection. After a thorough assessment of the literature, the goal of this study is to reveal indisputable proof that demonstrates the mesmerising power of Plano convex lenses on any PVC. This research summarises two undeniable incumbent solutions: a) Erbium’s impact on the surface of PVC cells; and b) Plano convex lenses that incorporate frazzle sun beams into gargantuan beams that remove a small amount of sunlight from PVC and boost electricity.Author (S) DetailsAdnan Alam KhanDHA Suffa University and Sindh Madressatul Islam University Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/NVST-V6/article/view/4132

Solution of the Clay Millennium Problem about the Navier-Stokes Equations: A Recent Approach| Chapter  4 | New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 6

In this study, the Navier-Stokes equations’ 4th Clay Millennium issue is solved in the direction of regularity. It accomplishes this by relying on the hypothesis of limiting beginning energy. The pressures are bounded in small time intervals, as demonstrated by projecting the bounded by the conservation of energy, virtual work of the pressures forces on specifically chosen bundles of instantaneous routes, which is the final important finding to deduce the regularity. It is shown that there is no Blow-up not just in finite time, but also at T=+.

Author (S) Details

Konstantinos E. Kyritsis

Department of Accounting-Finance, Psathaki Preveza 48100, University of Ioannina, Greece.



View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/NVST-V6/article/view/4134

Study on the Solution of the Clay Millennium Problem about the P vs NP: A Short Proof that P ≠ NP=EXPTIME in the Context of Deterministic Turing Machines | Chapter  5 | New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 6

In this paper, I prove that P NP and NP=EXPTIME in the context of Zermelo-Frankel set theory and deterministic Turing computers in a very short but definitive proof. The complex consequences of tackling the P versus NP dilemma in various axiomatic systems are also discussed. The current paper’s findings definitively resolve the third Clay Millennium problem of P versus NP in a clear and transparent manner that the broader scientific community, as well as experts in the field, can follow, understand, and hence accept. The hierarchy theorem is a more sophisticated finding than the P against NP problem, and there should be a proof for the P versus NP problem that is not much more complicated than the proof for the hierarchy theorem. The demonstration of the P vs NP problem in the direction P NP also implies that the current technique of creating passwords on the internet is secure.

Author (S) Details

 Konstantinos E. Kyritsis

Department of Accounting-Finance, University of Ioannina, Greece.



View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/NVST-V6/article/view/4135

Accessibility of Information Communication Technology and Its Motivation on Learning in Secondary Schools and Colleges| Chapter 6 | New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 6

The goal of this study was to see how much information and communication technology (ICT) use and accessibility motivation improved student-centered learning (SCL) skills among public secondary school students in Kenya’s Bungoma County. Kenya’s government and non-governmental organisations collaborated to build capacity in terms of ICT infrastructure and manpower across the country. The study hypothesis was created using the study objective as a starting point. The target population consisted of 742 responders from 71 schools, with a sample size of 272 from 19 schools. This research used a mixed-methods approach. Questionnaires and interview guides were utilised to gather information. The reliability test’s Cronbach’s alpha was 0.713. Frequencies, percentages, and averages were used as descriptive statistics, whereas correlation and regression analyses were used as inferential statistics. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences was used to examine the data (SPSS). Content analysis was used to examine qualitative data. ICT accessibility and motivation had a substantial impact on SCL, according to the simple linear stepwise multiple regression results. School administrators could boost ICT accessibility motivation by enhancing anytime, everywhere accessible through the usage of portable technology, according to the study’s suggestions. The outcomes of this study could be utilised to inform school administrators about the need to increase ICT accessibility standards in order to improve SCL.Author (S) DetailsKato Masika ErastusMasinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, P.O.Box 190-50100, Kakamega, Kenya.View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/NVST-V6/article/view/4137

Application of ICT-Based Facilities for Teaching and Learning among Technology Education Lecturers in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions in North-East, Nigeria| Chapter  7 | New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 6

In Nigerian education, the use of technological aids in teaching and learning has progressively expanded, notably at the tertiary institution level. In the 1980s, only desktop PCs were used to improve test materials preparation and results processing; today, a wide range of technologies are used for instructional reasons. Some of the schools’ success has been attributed to technology specialists who provide ongoing professional development. This study used a questionnaire-based field survey to look into how technology education lecturers (as master trainers) are incorporating technology into their teaching and learning, taking into account a number of related variables such as Technology Adoption in Teaching and Learning, Challenges to Technology Adoption, Technology Anxiety among Lecturers, Available Technology Training Opportunities, and the Effects of Lecturers’ Age, Gender, and Teaching Experience on Tec Adoption. As perceived hurdles and technology anxiety increase, technology use in instruction by technology education lecturers decreases; yet, technology adoption increases as technology availability increases and technology lecturers use colleagues as training sources. The study also discovered that technology integration challenges, technology fear, and the use of colleagues as a source of training account for a significant portion of the diversity in technology use for instruction among technology education lecturers in Nigeria’s North-East.

Author (S) Details

Nwachukwu A. Nwankwor

Department of Technology Education, Modibbo Adama Federal University of Technology, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria.



View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/NVST-V6/article/view/4138

Studies on Identification and Classification of the Best Communities That Ensure the Mastery of Their Expenditure by Using the Threshold of Their Cluster | Chapter  8 | New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 6

In the framework of local community expenditure reduction, we devised a technique for segmenting local communities based on their revenue ratios by employing data mining algorithms and determining, first and foremost, their weight to limit expenditure in their cluster. The latter is distinguished by a threshold that is proportional to the number of its constituents. On a second level, we created a new categorization rearrangement in order to raise the weight and, as a result, ensure better control and management of local community spending. Government spending rationalisation will not be effective at the national level unless it is implemented at the regional level.

Author (S) Details

Anouar Riad Solh

Laboratoire Conception et Systèmes (Microélectronique et Informatique), Faculty of Sciences Rabat, University Mohammed V-Agdal, Rabat, Morocco.

Mourad El Belkacemi

Laboratoire Conception et Systèmes (Microélectronique et Informatique), Faculty of Sciences Rabat, University Mohammed V-Agdal, Rabat, Morocco.



View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/NVST-V6/article/view/4139

Case Study Noise Level at the Construction Site The Steam Power Plants Tanjung Jati B Units 5 & 6: Environmental Impact and Management | Chapter 9 | New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 6

The influence of noise from the construction of a Steam Power Plant on the surrounding environment can be detrimental. The environmental scale can be used to determine environmental management directives based on initial baseline noise levels during the development stage. The goal of this study is to determine and manage the impact of noise from the construction of a coal-fired power station on the surrounding community. The integrated sound level metre is used in an evaluative descriptive research method. The equivalent noise level (Leq), daytime noise level (LS), night noise level (LM), and day-night noise level (L-SM) from nine sampling locations make up the research data. The noise analysis results are scaled and compared to the Minister of Environment of the Republic of Indonesia’s Decree No. Kep-48 / MENLH / 11/1996 and the IFC – EHS recommendations. Data on noise levels The environmental baseline for the laydown area usage stage at scale 2, the land clearance stage at scale 1, the main building construction phase, and supporting facilities at scale 1. The difference in effect components that is smaller than the difference in the average environmental scale is used to determine the value of the noise level scale, ensuring that the impact category is manageable. The direction for reducing noise impact is to establish a project guardrail, with activities taking place between 07.00 and 19.00 Western Indonesian time, as well as tree planting. Although environmental management and monitoring have been done properly, the evaluation trend shows a downward trend.

Author (S) Details

Slamet Isworo

Environmental Health Depertement, Universitas Dian Nuswantoro. Semarang, Indonesia.

Slamet Febriyanto

Environmental Impact Analysis Department, PT. Mitra Adhi Pranata, Consultant. Semarang, Indonesia.

Poerna Sri Oetari

Environmental Health Depertement, Universitas Dian Nuswantoro. Semarang, Indonesia and Environmental Impact Analysis Department, PT. Mitra Adhi Pranata, Consultant. Semarang, Indonesia.



View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/NVST-V6/article/view/4140

Modified Couple Stress Thermoelastic Diffusive Beam Due to Ramp Type Heating | Chapter 10 | New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 6

Due to ramp type heating, this chapter depicts the thermoelastic diffusion beam in modified couple stress theory. To address the problem in non-dimensional form, the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, Laplace transform technique, and eigenvalue approach are used. The basic equations are written in the form of a vector-matrix differential equation, which is solved using the eigenvalue approach, using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and the Laplace transform technique. Displacement, lateral deflection, temperature, axial tension, chemical potential, and concentration components are converted. To recover the solutions in the physical domain, a numerical inversion technique was used. With the help of MATLAB software, the analytical results were numerically determined. Mathematical modelling is done with copper substance. For various time values, numerically simulated results for displacement, lateral deflection, temperature, axial stress, chemical potential, and concentration are graphically presented. For various time values, comparisons have been done. In the problem, certain specific instances are discussed.

Author (S) Details

Shaloo Devi

Department of Mathematics, Maharaja Lakshman Sen Memorial College, Sundernagar, Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, India.



View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/NVST-V6/article/view/4141

A Review on Psychological and Social Stigma on Sexually Transmitted Diseases | Chapter 11 | New Visions in Science and Technology Vol. 6


Even with a high degree of measures in place to combat sexually transmitted infections, sexually transmitted diseases continue to be a top cause of death around the world. Sexually Transmitted Diseases have a wide range of reasons that result in complications, psychological effects, social stigma, and early mortality. People are stigmatised psychologically and socially as a result of a lack of self-awareness, information about transmission, prevention and early identification, counselling, and treatment. We should also raise public awareness about the prevention, early treatment, and screening options accessible to people by reaching out to people in both urban and rural areas, as well as the educated and uneducated, young and elderly. People should be educated or counselled about sexually transmitted diseases in order to reduce the psychological and social stigma associated with them. The goal of this review article is to give us insight into how to remove psychological and social stigmas that people face as a result of a lack of self-awareness, understanding about transmission, prevention and early detection, counselling, and treatment.

Author (S) Details

Nirmali Gogoi

Department of Child Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Assam down town University, Guwahati, Assam, India.

T. Hoitinnei Kom

Department of Child Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Assam down town University, Guwahati, Assam, India



View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/NVST-V6/article/view/4142