Between January and August 2021, 760 snails of the genera Achatina belonging to five species (Achatina achatina, Achatina belteata, Achatina degneri, Achatina fulica, and Achatina marginata) were sampled from six communities in six Local Government Areas (LGAs) in the Central Senatorial District, Cross River State. The most numerous species collected (32.89 percent) was A. achatina, whereas A. degneri was the least collected (11.19 percent ). There was a greater number of Achatina snails gathered during the wet season than during the dry season, with no species dominance noted. In total, 319 snails (42 percent) were afflicted with parasites. A. fulica had the highest parasitic infection prevalence (50.50 percent), while A. marginata had the lowest parasitic infection prevalence (50.50 percent) (28 percent ). The highest incidence of parasite infection was found in snail species examined in Boki LGA (56.25 percent), while the lowest prevalence was found in Obubra LGA (21.28 percent ). Angiostrongylus spp. had a mean intensity of 4.780 (4.56 – 5.00; 95 percent CI) in A. achatina, while Strongyloides spp. had a mean intensity of 4.667. (4.11-5.22; 95 percent CI). A. balteata had the highest values for Shannon-Wiener (1.653) and Margalef’s indices (1.995), as well as for species dominance using the Simpson index, when parasite species diversity was tested in snail species assessed using diversity indices (0.22). Control of snail-borne parasites is advocated through public health education and the provision of proper bathroom facilities.
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The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast the proximate analysis, AST, ALT, LDH, and SDH levels in Labeo rohita gill, muscle, liver, and kidney. This is due to the great nutritional value of this fish as a source of protein in developing countries. The proximate analysis of L. rohita gathered from various locations in Melarungunam, Cudalore district, Tamil Nadu discovered that hatchery L. rohita had the highest protein (19.97%) and ash (1.76%) contents, while fat (0.84%), carbohydrate (5.39%), and dry matter (24.11%) contents. Labio rohita is a genus of plants. The fish morphology had the highest moisture content (81.42 percent ). During the enzymatic examination, the highest levels of peroxidase and – amylase activity were detected. The liver contained the most Cd metals, followed by the kidney, muscle, and gills in that order. When compared to other fish, fish treated with rice bran and tapioca powder grew the fastest.
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Because of developments in medical technology, population growth, and higher life expectancy, the need for blood and blood products has skyrocketed. As a result, the current study’s goal is to discover the ABO blood group system of several communities in the Biraul block. A door-to-door survey was used to gather blood samples. The ABO blood group distribution frequencies revealed that blood group B was prominent in three Castes, namely Dusadh, Chamar, and Pasi, followed by O, A, and AB. In Brahman and Mallah, blood group O was the most common, followed by B, A, and AB. This study enables us to determine the precise distribution of blood groups in the various castes in Darbhanga’s Biraul block.
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Papyrocranus afer are under threat from increased wild collection for aquaria, particularly juveniles. P. afer Lagoon age, growth, and growth derived metrics based on Length Frequency Distribution (LFD) study and interpretation of annual growth markers hard structures (namely scales, otoliths, opercula and cleithra). From January 2010 to December 2011, 1,154 individuals of P. afer were sampled monthly from Lekki Lagoon. LFD average lengths-at-age were 13.45 cm (Age 0+), 34.45 cm (Age 1+), 49.50 cm (Age 2+), and 61cm (Age 3+). To model the observed length-at-age data, the von Bertalanffy growth function was used: Lt = 77.6 (1 – e-0.33(t +0.46)). Lm (length at initial maturity) was 41.1cm, while Lopt (length at optimal yield) was 49.5cm. The presence of juvenile fishes (38 cm) in the catch indicates increasing overfishing. Annual growth markings on hard parts revealed ages 1, 2, and 3 years; mean lengths at these ages were 33.1, 44.6, and 58.4cm (cleithra), 29.1, 40.0, and 60.4cm (scale), and 29.1, 40.0, and 60.4cm (scale) (operculum). There are no interpretable growing signs on the otoliths. Overfishing highlights Papyrocranus’ vulnerability to over-exploitation, highlighting the necessity for its conservation in Lekki Lagoon.
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Background: As a result of the rapid expansion of anthropogenic activities, particularly in the aquatic ecosystem, environmental pollution has escalated in recent decades. Under a variety of harsh environmental conditions, marine creatures can be subject to oxidative stress, which causes changes in metabolic components that can be measured to determine the health status of the organism.
The goal of this study is to monitor the effect of Naphthalene on bivalve mussels and to use a large number of biomakers to uncover distinct and distinctive patterns. In order to comprehend the changes in marker enzymes in P. viridis haemolymph, gill, and digestive gland, the green mussels Perna viridis were subjected to naphthalene.
Green mussels were exposed to naphthalene for 28 days in order to examine biomarker alterations. Acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), and aspartate transaminase activity (AST) were measured in mussels P. viridis haemolymph, gill, and digestive gland. After 28 days of naphthalene exposure, the haemolymph had significantly increased levels of all marker enzymes. Marker enzymes were inhibited in the gill and digestive gland, and all of the marker enzymes in the haemolymph, gill, and digestive gland were concentration dependent in the majority of cases. The alterations in marker enzymes found in P. viridis haemolymph and the other two tissues were statistically significant.
Conclusions: The current study found a significant relationship between all biomarkers examined in mussels exposed to naphthalene. Overall, the results show that when compared to tissues, haemolypmh is the most sensitive component to naphthalene exposure, and it might be used as a bioindicator of organic pollution exposure.
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Butterflies are one of nature’s most amazing species, with an intriguing activity known as puddling. The phrase puddling refers to the supplementation of minerals and salts from mud puddles, faeces, and carrion. The mud puddling activity of lepidopterans has a significant impact on the insects’ nutritional and reproductive health. The purpose of this study is to record the mud puddling activity of butterflies in Alagarkovil Hills, a reserve forest area with rich biodiversity and high anthropogenic activity, and to test soil samples for various minerals and salts to better understand the role of mud puddling in butterfly reproduction. From July 2017 to January 2018, six sites in the Alagarkovil hills were surveyed for butterflies using the transect approach on sunny days between 0800-1600 hrs, three times a week. During the study period, 111 species from six families were documented, with the Lycaenidae, Nymphalidae, and Pieridae families being the most likely to display mud puddling. Male butterflies were observed to participate in mud puddling in greater numbers than female butterflies, confirming prior findings. Among the six study sites, the one with the most puddles had the most mud puddling activity. The soil examination of the mud puddling sites revealed the presence of salts such as sodium and potassium, metal ions such as manganese, iron, and copper, and macro elements such as phosphorus, nitrogen, and carbon. The salt and potassium percentages were discovered to be increased, which were stated to be the main elements eaten during mud puddling. The puddling activity was shown to be aided by the soil’s alkaline pH. All of these abiotic elements have an impact on the nutritional and reproductive biology of butterflies, which may be tracked to determine the community state and diversity of butterflies in a given location. The preservation of mud puddling areas may aid in the restoration of the butterfly’s biodiversity index.
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Accurate and timely information characterising aquatic ecosystems and their changes through time is becoming increasingly crucial, particularly in metropolitan settings. The current study looked at the water quality of an urban lake in Kashmir Valley called Dal. The criteria of water quality were assessed using the American Public Health Administration’s standard approach. Surface water quality research found that the lake is extensively polluted with organic and inorganic pollutants of human origin. The water quality data pertaining to various physio-chemical and biological parameters of Dal Lake were compared to World Health Organization (WHO) drinking standards, and it was discovered that several parameters such as pH, alkalinity, and coliform had exceeded the desired limits. The lake’s water quality index (WQI) ranged from 185.8 in winter to a maximum of 17217.7 in summer, indicating that the lake’s waters are unfit for consumption. Overall, anthropogenic activities such as dumping raw faecal matter from houseboats, untreated sewage from settlements, and fertiliser runoff from watershed areas have been identified as the primary causes of nutrient enrichment and water quality degradation in this significant urban lake. As a result, a continual programme of water quality monitoring over the lake surface is required to ensure the health of this essential aquatic environment.
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The agro-ecosystem environment is determined by the interaction of abiotic (temperature, humidity, rainfall, soil texture, geographical area, pollutants) and biotic (crop plants, weeds, insect pests, and humans) components. Abiotic factors influence biotic factors, but the most harmful outcomes occur when biotic factors govern abiotic factors. Human (biotic) activities like as industrialisation, uncontrolled urbanisation, the use of insecticides and pesticides, and the excessive use of fossil fuels pollute the air we breathe, the water we drink, and the land we plant. The aforementioned activities are to blame for the area’s negative impact on the ecosystem. Pollution and other manmade activities are key contributors to climate change. Multiple ecosystems are impacted by the global planetary warning, changing rainfall pattern, precipitation, and humidity. Climate change has an impact on global warming, environmental deterioration, and the earth’s flora and fauna. This page will educate farmers, horticulturists, and researchers on the consequences of climate change on insect diversity. Crop growers face a significant danger from insect infestations. More research on climate change, seasonal variation, environmental contamination, and the influence on insect pests is urgently needed. While developing and implementing pest management methods, the impact of seasonal changes on crop output, as mediated by changes in the populations of major insect pests, must be carefully studied. Such pest management measures should be employed to prevent crop loss while preserving food quality and the environment.
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Silkworm (Bombyx mori) is a useful insect that creates plentiful silk in the shape of a cocoon by swallowing mulberry leaves (Morus alba) during the larval period. Humidity and temperature, for example, have an impact on the physiology of insects. Farmers are also dealing with a significant issue as a result of silkworm sensitivity to various diseases, which is having a negative impact on cocoon output. The purpose of this paper is to examine the management of entomopathogenic fungi utilising various green nanoparticles (NPs) and their effects on larval growth, survivorship, and mass silk production. Previous research on the relationship between environmental conditions, green NPs, and changes in the developmental cycle of silkworms is discussed in this publication. Environmental elements such as temperature and humidity are also important for increasing silk productivity in sericulture. However, enormous economic losses occur in the sericulture industry as a result of these pathogenic fungi and poor environmental conditions.
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The epidermal mucus layer on fish skin contains numerous antimicrobial compounds that serve as a first line of defence against invasive infections from the surrounding environment. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), lysozyme, lectins, complement, transferrin, interferon, pentraxins, natural antibodies, protease, and other components found in mucus enable innate immunity. Many AMPs have been found in fish, including hepcidins, defensins, cathelicidins, histone-derived peptides, and piscidins, all of which have an antibacterial range. Because of their broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and mode of action that differs from that of small-molecule antibiotics, antimicrobial peptides are extremely appealing possibilities for therapeutic medicines. This paper covers the possible use of mucus as an antibacterial agent in vivo.
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