The epidermal mucus layer on fish skin contains numerous antimicrobial compounds that serve as a first line of defence against invasive infections from the surrounding environment. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), lysozyme, lectins, complement, transferrin, interferon, pentraxins, natural antibodies, protease, and other components found in mucus enable innate immunity. Many AMPs have been found in fish, including hepcidins, defensins, cathelicidins, histone-derived peptides, and piscidins, all of which have an antibacterial range. Because of their broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and mode of action that differs from that of small-molecule antibiotics, antimicrobial peptides are extremely appealing possibilities for therapeutic medicines. This paper covers the possible use of mucus as an antibacterial agent in vivo.
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The fruits of Hylocereus undatus, sometimes known as dragon fruit, have recently gained a lot of interest from gardeners all over the world. There is, however, insufficient toxicological data on the safety of repeated exposure to these fruits. The current study looked at the toxicity of H. undatus fruit meat in fish following an acute administration. Fingerling were not fed during the experimental period in the acute toxicity investigation. The test solutions were produced at various concentrations (100, 250, 500, 1000, and 2000mg/L) from Hylocereus undatus stock solutions. In each test concentration of Hylocereus undatus, a group of ten laboratory acclimatised fingerlings of a specific species with the same weight, size, and age were introduced. Monitor fish mortality after 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours. The LC50 values at 48, 72, and 96 hours were greater than 371.53mg/l, 3.46mg/l, and 1.41mg/l, respectively. To establish the tolerance limits of Hylocereus undatus fruit extract, a toxicity study was carried out, which is required for the adaption of traditional medicine. According to the LD50 (446.68mg/L) values obtained. These findings confirm the widespread use of Hylocereus undatus fruit as a therapeutic decoction in herbal medicine.
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The use of pesticides like bacticide to suppress mosquitoes at their breeding locations may have a significant impact on non-target species, including promising biological agents like belostomatid water bugs. In light of these factors, the current study focuses on the extent of survival, tolerance, and behaviour of the water bug Diplonychus rusticus in a bacticide-treated fresh water medium. The findings are explored in light of the effects of environmental stress on population dynamics.
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The grape thrips (Thrips palmi) is a major pest that causes significant losses in commercial grape production (Vitis vinifera L.). In West Bengal, India, it has become a significant pest of grape vine. The efficacy of neonicotinoid insecticides spinetoram 10% w/w + sulfoxaflor 30% w/w WG @ 100, 120, and 140 a.i. g /ha, spinetoram 12 percent SC w/v (11.7 percent w/w), sulfoxaflor 24 percent w/v (21.8 percent w/w) SC, emamectin benzoate 5% SG and bu Spinetoram 10% w/w + sulfoxaflor 30% w/w WG @ 140 g a.i./ha was the most effective against thrips on grapes, and it was on par with spinetoram 10% + sulfoxaflor 30% WG @ 120 g a.i./ha. The same tendencies can be seen in yield. The pesticides tested were also found to be less toxic to predators such as Menochilus sp., Syrphus sp., and Chrysoperla sp.
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The use of titanium dioxide and nanoparticles in ordinary products and our daily lives is extremely frequent. It is used as a culinary ingredient, as well as in dairy products, tooth paste, and a variety of commercial items such as paints, tiles, adhesives, and so on. For a time, its use was assumed to be safe, but new study indicates that it has a number of negative effects on human health. In this regard, the current study tried to investigate the ecotoxic effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on animal physiology using Rattus norvegicus liver tissue (Albino wister rats). Experimental mice were exposed to titanium dioxide nanoparticles in three different ways: acute oral toxicity (96 hours), short term oral toxicity (28 days), and sub chronic oral toxicity (98 days) (TiO2). According to IARC 2006, the LD50 (lethal dose 50) was determined, and 100 nm sized particles of TiO2 were dissolved in distilled water and administered as a single oral dose via canula. Because the liver is a detoxifying organ, its enzymes, such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and bilirubin, are suggestive of excellent liver functionality and were assessed in all three terms of exposure. The results show that there are significantly greater levels of all important liver enzymes, implying that TiO2 has a harmful effect on the liver. This study clearly demonstrates TiO2as a toxicant affecting liver health and thus its indiscriminate use in several common items, which may be discouraged or used with caution, if not completely discontinued.
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Microbial infections can be lethal if not treated promptly, as well as creating significant economic losses for the aquaculture business; thus, aquaculture biosecurity issues addressing pathogens and illnesses should be prioritised. As a result, the current study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of bacterial and fungal pathogens in the water as well as in the intestinal tracts of the usually occurring fishes in this system. The samples for this study were taken from the River Cauvery at Lower Anicut, Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu. This river features a diverse fish population that includes murrels, catfish, carps, and eels. The size and weight of the numerous fishes studied in this study, as well as the bacterial load in the water and the fishes studied. Water had the highest bacterial count burden. Channa punctatus had the highest bacterial load (38 x 103cfu/ml), followed by Puntius conchonius (36 x 103Cfu/ml) and Mystus vittatus (34 X 103Cfu/ml). Catla catla had the least level of bacterial burden (1.2 x 103Cfu/ml). A total of 13 fungus species were discovered in the system’s water samples. C. catla was found to have 8 fungus species in its intestinal system among the fishes. C. punctatus, on the other hand, reported the presence of 9 fungal species, C. batrachus, the presence of 10 fungal species, and M. vittatus and P. conchonius, the presence of 11 fungal species apiece. Overall, water has the highest number of fungal species, followed by M. vittatus and P. conchonius. Rhizopus nigricans and Achlya hypogyna were not found in M. vittatus, while Alternaria alternata and Achlya prolifera were not found in P. conchonius. C. catla and L. rohita found the fewest fungus (8 each). C. catla, A. fumigatus, Penicillium citrinum, R. nigricans, A. prolifera, and A. hypogyna were not reported, however L. rohita, A. fumigatus, A. alternata, Curvularia lunata, A. prolifera, and Mycelia sterilia were. As a result, it appears that each fish had a unique fungus. This is most likely due to the bodily composition of each fish, as well as its resilience to certain fungus. A closer examination indicates, however, that four fungi (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium oxysporium, and Cladosporium herbarum) were found in all fish species. The degree of infection, on the other hand, varied from species to species and appeared to be a reflection of the species makeup of the water.
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The leaf hopper (Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida.) wreaks havoc on grape vines (Vitis vinifera L.). In West Bengal, the pest is a limiting factor in the commercial production of grapes and many other crops. To compare their efficacy against leaf hopper, one dosage of spinetoram 10 percent w/w + sulfoxaflor 30 percent w/w WG @ 100, 120, and 140 a.i. g /ha, one dose of spinetoram 12 percent SC w/v (11.7 percent w/w), sulfoxaflor 24 percent w/v (21.8 percent w/w) SC, emamectin benzoate 5 The spinetoram 10% w/w + sulfoxaflor 30% w/w WG @ 140 g a.i./ha offered the best control of leaf hopper, followed by spinetoram 10% w/w + sulfoxaflor 30% w/w WG @ 120 g a.i./ha. The same tendencies have been seen in grape yield. The insecticides tested were also found to be highly safe to grape insect-pest predators such as Menochilus sp., Syrphus sp., and Chrysoperla sp.
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The Coastal Police Patrol discovered a male striped dolphin caught in a discarded fishing net off Tangassery, Coast, Kollam, Kerala, India (8°52′55′′N76°34′26′′E) and later identified it as Stenella coeruleoalba. The imprisoned animal was exhausted from the attempt to release itself from the ensnaring monofilament driftnet. Necropsy indicated that the stomach was devoid of solid food, indicating that the entangled net had caused extended hunger. The incident demonstrates the devastation caused by abandoned fishing gear on our marine creatures.
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According to Hinduism, Amarkantak is a sacred site. It is the source of the Narmada River, and the locals revere it as “Maa Narmada.” Amarkantak’s tropical deciduous forest is the natural habitat of many species; there are ponds, agriculture areas, and grassland that are ideal for bird watching. From 7 February to 12 March 2021, it detected 85 species of birds belonging to 15 orders and 48 families in six different areas: Jamunadhadar, Kapilasangam, Sonmuda, Mai ki bagiya, Main mandir, and Chakrathirth. In this study, the morning and evening hours of each day were chosen for identification and observation in various locations such as dams, farm fields, grasslands, and forest areas. Jamunadhadar has the most diverse avian fauna diversity, with 60 species, followed by Chakratirth, which has 54 species, Sonmuda, which has 39 species, and Main Mandir, which has 11 species. Dams, agriculture fields, tiny ponds, and grasslands in Jamunadhaar provide a better home for several types of birds. The spotted creeper (Salpornis spilotus) has been spotted in Jamunadhader and Sonmuda. It was not found in the previous year’s Achanakmar-Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve survey. Another bird that was not seen in Amarkantak in earlier surveys was the red naped Ibis (Pseudibis papillosa), which was seen in Jamunadhader, Chakratirth, and Kapilasangam in this study.
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Human-Wildlife Conflict (HWC) is one of the most inevitable challenges in today’s fast-paced world. The main reason for human-animal interaction is resource sharing and human intervention in wildlife habitats, which has resulted in habitat degradation. The current study was conducted in the arid landscape of Gujarat in order to assess the impact of wildlife crop damage and to learn about residents’ attitudes about wildlife. A standardised questionnaire was used to conduct 150 successful interviews from ten villages on the outskirts of the Greater Rann of Kachchh in the Banaskatha area. According to the findings, the average amount of land available per household is 10.5 7.8 acres, with a mean yearly income of $ 460 197. It was calculated that the respondents lost $ 318.5 each year due to agricultural damage. Aside from wildlife, water scarcity and natural disasters are key obstacles for the farmers in this area. The most common wild animal responsible for agricultural damage is the wild boar (Sus scrofa), followed by the blue bull (Boselaphus tragocamelus) and wildass (Equus hemionus khur). As a result, 70% of respondents expressed an unwillingness to coexist. To control crop damage, farmers in this area are employing both traditional and modern preventive techniques. According to the study, individuals with more land are more likely to favour current preventive procedures, which are unaffected by the farmers’ wealth. According to the study, farm fencing and pest species eradication may be important methods to decrease conflicts in this region. However, providing proper and timely recompense to farmers for crop loss by the authorities may help to develop goodwill among the population.
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