ACUTE TOXICITY STUDIES OF CADMIUM ON CRAB Sesarma quadratum (Decapoda) |  UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY

An estuary is a brackish water feature that is partially contained along the coast, with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it and a free access to the open sea. Estuaries are an example of an ecotone, which is a transition zone between river and maritime habitats. Because many crustacean species live in estuaries, numerous research have been conducted to investigate the bioaccumulation and impact of various toxicants in these creatures. Heavy metals can build up in aquatic organisms’ tissues and induce a variety of harmful consequences on all organisms due to biomagnification. The goal of this study was to look at the acute toxicity of cadmium on crabs (Sesarma quadratum). Crab samples were subjected to varying amounts of cadmium (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25g/L) for 96 hours, and cumulative death was calculated in 24-hour intervals. SPSS 20 was used to analyse the data and provide a number of cumulative and fatal mortality rates.

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CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SCALE MORPHOLOGY AND SALIENT FEATURES OF THE SELECTED MARINE FISHES |  UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY

The scales on a fish’s body are extraordinary structures that give structural support. The number of rows and scale types are used to identify species, and scale morphology has proven to be a useful tool in fish classification. In this work, fourteen marine fish scales were collected and examined in three locations to find morphological differences and features. Scales are gathered from three separate sections on the body of each fish: the head region, the caudal region, and the middle region. Using stereo and compound microscopes, they were examined for morphological differences. The fishes have two types of scales: cycloid and ctenoid scales. Elasmoid scales are what they’re called when they’re all together. The scale size varies amongst scales of the same fish, and the scales also fluctuate according to the age of the fish. The annuli on the scales can be used to determine the age of a fish. Scales are generally oval, circular, or rectangular in shape. Sphyraenidae, Psettodidae, Nemipteridae, Synodontidae, Sillaginidae, Clupeidae, Engraulidae, Epinephelidae, and Mugilidae are among the nine families of fish studied. On the scales of fish belonging to the Sciaenidae and Cynoglossidae families, morphological variations were discovered. Scale parameters were discovered to be an important parameter in studying fish taxonomy in this study.

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PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF KUDUVAIYAR ESTUARINE WATER OF SOUTH EAST COAST OF INDIA |  UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY

The water quality parameters of coastal water in the Kuduvaiyar estuary were studied, and the east shore of Kuduvaiyar was chosen as the reference location. pH, DO, Ammonium, Nitrate, BOD, Sodium, Chloride, Sulphate, and Fluoride concentrations were measured in the laboratory using established methods and compared to Fisheries and Aquatic Life standard values. Because of the continual discharge of agricultural, home sewage, and industrial effluent into the estuary, the coastal water level was chosen. The current baseline data on water’s physicochemical qualities will be valuable for further ecological assessment and monitoring of the Kuduvaiyar estuary water on India’s South East coast. The current study concludes that physico-chemical characteristics determine Ichthyofaunal diversity, and while the Kuduvaiyar estuary is not particularly polluted, there is the prospect of progressive pollution addition in the future. It indicates that the yearly monsoon cycle has a significant impact on the estuarine ecology.

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BIOCHEMICAL PROFILES OF DIFFERENT BREEDS OF Bombyx mori ANTAGONIZED WITH FUNGAL PATHOGEN Beauveria bassiana |  UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY

Bombyx mori, the silkworm, has been extensively used as a model for a wide range of research studies and as a representative of lepidopteran insects. The silkworm is a major producer of mulberry silk that has a high commercial value. Silkworms are extremely fragile and susceptible to a variety of pathogenic microbial species that impair the silk cocoon’s productive properties. The level of vulnerability differed between breeds. Biochemical features show an organism’s physiological state and may point to the possibility of employing biochemical markers to assess the health of silkworm breeds. Beauveria bassiana, a fungal infection, is limited to the haemolymph until the host organism dies. Before moving on to other fields of research such as immunology and disease management, a thorough understanding of biochemical interactions and physiological alterations in the haemolymph between host and pathogen in response to infection is required. With this as a backdrop, the dynamics of vital macromolecules in the haemolymph of the 5th instar in three popular silkworm breeds, namely bivoltine double hybrid (CSR 2 x CSR 27) x (CSR 6 x CSR 26), crossbreed (PM CSR2), and bivoltine single hybrid, were investigated in the haemolymph of the 5th instar under stress conditions caused by the fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana in (CSR2 X CSR4). Significant differences were observed in three primary macromolecules chosen for the study, total carbs, proteins, and lipids, in three different breeds. The bivoltine double hybrid, followed by crossbreed, and bivoltine single hybrid, showed the most promising results. In all biochemical parameters studied, bivoltine double hybrid outperformed crossbreed and bivoltine single hybrid, according to the study’s findings. The findings of the study can be utilised to test silkworm breeds and differentiate them.

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ENRICHMENT OF Artemia franciscana AND TOXICITY ANALYSIS OF CHLORPYRIFOS ON ENRICHED ARTEMIA |  UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY

The importance of Artemia as a common fish diet is highlighted in this study. The Artemia cysts were harvested, decapsulated, incubated, washed, and separated. Artemia was fed two different feed formulations, and the growth of Artemia was monitored. The groundnut oil cake and wheat flour-supplemented feed grew at a higher pace than the spirulina powder and rice bran-supplemented feed. HPLC is used to analyse amino acids in the following two categories of Artemia samples. The insecticide chlorpyrifos was used in the cytotoxicity test. Chlorpyrifos toxicity is investigated in enriched artemia by providing different concentrations (25, 50, 100, 200, 300) in l for 5 hours. The chlorpyrifos LC50 value on enhanced Artemia at the indicated concentration is = 187.6 g/ml. Adult enhanced Artemia is incapable of withstanding the toxicity for more than a few hours. Adult enhanced Artemia was easily vulnerable to numerous harmful agents such as pesticides, parasites, and other microorganisms, according to the findings. When compared to adult Artemia, enriched Artemia nauplii are substantially less sensitive to the pesticide. It can withstand harmful conditions better than adult Artemia. As a result, enriched nauplii are the best source of food for freshwater and marine fish, as well as other crustaceans.

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ICHTHYOFAUNAL DIVERSITY OF KINNERASANI RESERVOIR IN BHADRADRI KOTHAGUDEM DISTRICT OF TELANGANA, INDIA |  UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY

In this study, the Ichthyofaunal diversity of the Kinnerasani reservoir in Telangana state was discovered. Sixty-one fish species were discovered, divided into eight orders, 19 families, and 40 genera. The order Cypriniformes dominated with 24 species, accounting for 39.34% of all species, followed by Perciformes with 14 (22.95%), Siluriformes with 13 (21.31%), Channiformes with 04 (6.55%), Beloniformes and Anguilliformes with 02 (3.27%), Osteoglossiformes and Cyprinodontiformes with 01 species each (1.64 percent ). Perciformes supplied 06 (31.57 percent) of the 19 families listed, while Siluriformes gave 05. (26.31 percent ). The current communication presents fish species baseline data as well as diversity indexes and conservation status.

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A STUDY ON PLASMID MEDIATED AmpC BETA-LACTAMASE AND ITS ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN AMONG ESCHERICHIA COLI AND Klebsiella Species |  UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY

This is a descriptive study conducted at Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research’s Department of Microbiology from May 2013 to August 2014. In this investigation, a total of 100 isolates (57 E. coli and 43 Klebsiella spp.) were processed. Urine samples accounted for 41 percent of the total, with pus samples accounting for 17 percent, sputum samples for 25 percent, blood samples for 9 percent, stool samples for 6 percent, and pleural fluid and ascitic fluid samples for 2 percent each. There were 33 strains from the ICU, 44 strains from the wards, and 23 strains from outpatients among the 100 isolates. By CLSI-defined criteria, ESBL production was detected in 41 (41 percent) of the 100 isolates. Multiplex PCR revealed a 16 percent prevalence of Amp C beta-lactamases in the discovered tube. CIT is the most common gene, followed by DHA. In hospitalised patients, the rate of Amp C beta-lactamas synthesis was observed to be relatively high. All of the Amp ‘; ta-lactamases tested in this work were completely susceptible to Meropenem in both E. coli and Klebsiellas pp. Except for cefepime, a fourth-generation cephalosporin, all Amp C manufacturers were cephalosporin resistant.

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ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECT OF PRANAYAMA ON THE LEVEL OF STRESS AMONG NURSING STUDENTS IN SELECTED COLLEGE OF NURSING, VELLORE |  UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY

Susceptibility to a variety of chronic health issues is a symptom of stress. According to key inhibition, efforts are focused on boosting health by persuading patients that they may adapt healthy lifestyles. To determine the effectiveness of pranayama in reducing stress in nursing students, this study used a quasi-experimental pre-test and post-test control group design. Yoga practises are a powerful tool for keeping the elderly in good psychophysical shape. Pranayama is a set of exercises that tries to increase the amount of oxygen in the blood and brain. There was no significant link between post-test stress levels among the participants. Pranayama is a technique for causing the respiratory organs to expand, consciously, and rhythmically, resulting in deep relaxation of the body and mind, improved concentration, relief from stress, and strengthening of the respiratory system nervous system.

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SEASONAL DIVERSITY AND ABUNDANCE OF INSECT PESTS IN Bt AND NON-Bt COTTON FIELDS |  UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY

In Palem village of Nalgonda district, Telangana state, India, a field study was done to investigate ‘Seasonal diversity and abundance of insect pests in Bt and non-Bt cotton fields.’ Every month in the morning from July 2019 to January 2020, a sample was taken. On Bt and non-Bt cotton plants, insect pests were collected using a sweep net and a hand-picking approach. A total of 5541 arthropod individuals in Bt cotton fields and 6822 arthropod individuals in non-Bt cotton fields were gathered during the 2019-2020 cotton seasons. In non-Bt cotton, more arthropods were collected than in Bt cotton. During the study period, a total of 25 insect pests on Bt cotton and 38 insect pests on non-Bt cotton were identified, representing 20 insect families and three orders. During the study period, we discovered 3- species of insect pests on Bt cotton fields in July, 9 species in August, 12- species in September, 19-species in October, 19-species in November, 10-species in December, and 7-species in January, and 4- species on non-Bt cotton fields in July, 10 species in August, 12- species in September, 29-species in October, 28-species in November, 14-species in December, and 9-species in January. In comparison to non-Bt cotton fields, we detected less pests in Bt cotton fields. Seasonal abundance was lower in both Bt and non-Bt cotton fields in July-2019, progressively increasing from July-2019 to November-2019, and then declining from December-2019 to January-2020 in both Bt and non-Bt cotton fields. The minimal variations in insect pest abundance between Bt and non-Bt cotton crops caught our attention. In order to analyse the community structure of insect pests, ecological indicators were computed.

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EFFECTS OF Carica papaya LEAF EXTRACT SUSPENSION ON CARBOPLATIN INDUCED THROMBOCYTOPENIA IN MICE |  UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY

Since ancient times, plants and plant-based products have been used to treat a variety of human ailments. Linn’s Carica papaya It’s a perennial with a smooth stem and long-stalked leaves that belongs to the Caricaseae family. Because of its high concentration of phytochemicals, minerals, and vitamins, papaya leaf extract (PLE) has a medicinal effect in the treatment of a variety of human ailments. Carica papaya leaf dramatically enhances thrombocyte count and avoids chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia, according to this study. The effect begins on day 2 and lasts for the rest of the week. However, because the count increased only on the last four days of monitoring, the effect on neutrophil count is inconclusive. If it is developed as an anti-cancer therapy in the future, it can be administered alone without causing thrombocytopenia or combined with other anti-cancer treatments to prevent thrombocytopenia. The chemicals responsible for this action, on the other hand, must be identified and isolated. More research on experimental animals and humans is also needed to offer clear and certain data on its usefulness, exact method of action, and therapeutic application. Once the exact mechanism of action is determined, it can be used to treat additional thrombocytopenic disorders and will also be a new generation of cancer treatments.

Please see the link :- http://mbimph.com/index.php/UPJOZ/article/view/2569

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