The agro-ecosystem environment is determined by the interaction of abiotic (temperature, humidity, rainfall, soil texture, geographical area, pollutants) and biotic (crop plants, weeds, insect pests, and humans) components. Abiotic factors influence biotic factors, but the most harmful outcomes occur when biotic factors govern abiotic factors. Human (biotic) activities like as industrialisation, uncontrolled urbanisation, the use of insecticides and pesticides, and the excessive use of fossil fuels pollute the air we breathe, the water we drink, and the land we plant. The aforementioned activities are to blame for the area’s negative impact on the ecosystem. Pollution and other manmade activities are key contributors to climate change. Multiple ecosystems are impacted by the global planetary warning, changing rainfall pattern, precipitation, and humidity. Climate change has an impact on global warming, environmental deterioration, and the earth’s flora and fauna. This page will educate farmers, horticulturists, and researchers on the consequences of climate change on insect diversity. Crop growers face a significant danger from insect infestations. More research on climate change, seasonal variation, environmental contamination, and the influence on insect pests is urgently needed. While developing and implementing pest management methods, the impact of seasonal changes on crop output, as mediated by changes in the populations of major insect pests, must be carefully studied. Such pest management measures should be employed to prevent crop loss while preserving food quality and the environment.
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The Panvel region of Raigad district is home to a diverse range of vegetation, an estuary, and rugged hills, providing a haven for living organisms like as butterflies. Several human-caused activities, particularly the continuing construction of the Navi Mumbai International Airport (NMIA), have damaged habitat in and around Panvel. Both vertebrates and invertebrates experience a reduction in biodiversity as habitat is lost. There isn’t even a tentative list of the region’s Lepidopteran species. As a result, the current study was carried out in order to compile a butterfly checklist for the area. Butterflies were monitored for a year (from June 2019 to May 2020) in various places of the Mahatma Phule College of Arts, Science, and Commerce (MPASC) campus and the surrounding Panvel areas. A total of 42 Lepidopteran species were discovered, divided into 32 genera and six families. Nymphalidae topped the list with 14 genera and 21 species, followed by Pieridae (7 genera, 9 species), Lycaenidae (7 genera, 7 species), Papilionidae (2 genera, 3 species), Hesperiidae (1 genus, 1 species), and Riodinidae (1 genus, 1 species). This research would offer data on the region’s butterfly biodiversity, which may be utilised as a starting point for future butterfly research.
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Teratodes monticollis (Gray 1832) is also known as the hooded grasshopper. This species’ distribution has been reported from India, Ceylon, and Burma, among other places. The existing reports, on the other hand, are highly confined to records from several Indian states. The current study looked at the occurrence of T. monticollis in Vadodara, as well as an observational study on its mating behaviour for the first time in Gujarat, India.
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Birds such as house sparrows and house crows have long been regarded as ecosystem indicators that indicate environmental health. From the standpoint of an ecology, the complete absence of a species (that was once numerous) is undesirable. Anthropogenic activities such as urbanisation and deforestation have reached a tipping point in recent years, resulting in biodiversity loss. This isn’t just about the number of species; it’s also about the interactions between them that shape the ecosystem. The current research looks into the sudden extinction of house sparrows and house crows. Chinsurah, West Bengal, India, was chosen as the study location because it has experienced tremendous urbanisation in the last two decades, resulting in the extinction of sparrow and crow populations. Satellite imaging data (from Google Earth) and Landsat data (from GLCF) gathered on a temporal scale were used to study the urban spread of Chinsurah in recent years. The research area was surveyed in order to determine the preferred roosting locations of the birds. Structures with modern designs lack adequate nesting locations, according to a comparison of the architecture of ancient and new/renovated buildings. Furthermore, birds lose their foraging sites as a result of the loss of tree cover. In the study region, birds such as the common myna, larger coucal, Indian treepie, black drongo, and black kite have been seen residing close to human settlements. House sparrows and house crows have been observed to face predatory and/or competitive pressures. Other factors that affect sparrow and crow populations were explored as well. The decline of bird species appears to have an impact on the urban ecosystem by producing ecological imbalances. This can be mitigated, however, by taking ecological concerns into account when planning urban expansion. As a result, future research should not focus exclusively on biodiversity conservation, but also on maintaining ecosystem balance and preventing the extinction of other species as a result of sustainable urbanisation..
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During 2018, a pilot research was conducted to determine the biodiversity of butterflies in the Jogimatti Forest of the Chitradurga district of Karnataka, India. Butterflies are good pollinators, highly sensitive to environmental changes, and operate as good bio-indicators of the health of their habitat, in addition to their aesthetic appeal. The survey discovered 39 butterfly species belonging to five different families, with Nymphalidae (44 percent), Pieridae (28 percent), Lycaenidae (13 percent), Papilionidae (10 percent), and Hespiridae (10 percent) dominating (5 percent ) In terms of number of species, there are 430 Nymphalidae (136) and Pieridae (178) butterflies. The dominanat butterfly species from their respective families are the Common mormon, Common emigrant, Plain tiger, Common cerulean, and Indian cupid, according to the current findings. These findings imply that the Jogimatti forest in Chitradurga district has a hospitable habitat for butterfly variety.
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An invasive species is any living organism that is not native to an ecosystem and causes damage, such as an amphibian, plant, insect, fish, fungus, bacteria, or even an organism’s seeds or eggs. With the aim of providing feedback on different levels and community decisions, we conducted a systematic literature review of current studies on the status and effect of invasive species on the environment, socioeconomics, and humans. Both qualitative and quantitative data were used to detect patterns in publication trends and factors influencing research views of invasive species. The majority of research papers on the effects of invasive plant species have focused on the autecology of these species, factors that facilitate their spread, social structure changes, and economic losses. Soil processes that adapt rapidly to plant invasions and, as a result, affect both native and invasive species recruitment and development are often overlooked. Several soil properties and processes are significantly changed, according to the author’s analysis of the current literature on the effects of invasive plant species. These reforms encourage feedback mechanisms, which could have an effect on ecosystem structure and biogeochemical cycles at the landscape level. To gain a deeper understanding of the invasion, studies must clearly concentrate on soil processes. A total of 169 invasive alien species have been discovered in India’s various ecosystems. On the basis of unique parameters, it is documented by India’s National Biodiversity Authority. The aim of this review is to gain a better understanding of the status of IAS in India, as well as their effect on biodiversity, ecosystem services, and human welfare. This study will assist researchers in understanding the status of IAS in India.
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Patches of socially protected forests or sacred groves (SGs) developed around local deities and/or ancestral spirits are very old, and were once common in most parts of West Bengal, including the Nadia district. The reasons for their declining numbers can be traced to a variety of factors, the majority of which are anthropogenic. They are part of the state’s rich biodiversity heritage and play a significant role in the religious and sociocultural lives of the people who live there. They perform the majority of ecological functions because they are self-ecosystems. Many endangered species have been discovered to be healthy in the SGs. The West Bengal district of Nadia is rich in SGs dedicated to preserving local beliefs. In total, 60 SGs were investigated in various parts of Nadia, West Bengal. People of all castes and creeds are working to preserve age-old beliefs in old plants, their everyday medicinal uses, and hence their conservation. They are also contributing to the survival of animals that depend on these old plant populations, resulting in the conservation of local biodiversity in such SGs. The general public, mainly from rural areas of the district, is assisting the state biodiversity conservation authority in conserving the heritage of these biodiversity sites throughout the district through financial and logistic assistance, thanks to their continued efforts and active participation of women. Conservation and wise management of SGs are part of the aspirations of the local people, who benefit from the sharing of resources from such areas.
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Crustaceans play a critical role in improving the ecological and economic importance of Indian fisheries. From 1996 to 2016, various species of crustaceans in the wild in India steadily decreased due to overexploitation and constant demand, resulting in a major ecological imbalance. According to the IUCN Red Data List 2019, globally, about 27% of selected crustaceans are endangered, whereas in India, about 1.54 percent of crustaceans are threatened and 37.5 percent of crustacean data are deficient. Out of 17.5 percent of global endemic crustacean species, 5.9% are present in India, but the worst case scenario is that the population of these species has also declined due to overexploitation. By not having any clues regarding unexplored extinct organisms, this would result in a massive loss of biodiversity. At this stage, taxonomy plays an important role in assessing species in the wild and assisting conservative biodiversity-documentation programmes. It also includes a checklist for in-situ conservation of those species, which aids in the advancement of crustacean fisheries’ economic growth. It will also assist in raising awareness about the grave threat of biodiversity loss. This article describes the exact situation of India’s crustacean population and stresses the importance of taxonomy in its survival.
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The aim of current research is to assess the harmful effect of agricultural pesticide on the internal organs of non-target organisms like fish using Scanning Electron Microscope. Intended to kill harmful pests and insects, these chemicals directly affect many non target organisms which live in nearby habitats of agricultural fields. These chemicals easily get access into nearby ponds and rivers and affect aquatic life. Current investigation reveals harmful effects of Chlorpyrifos 50% + Cypermethrin 5% EC on liver and kidney of Clarias batrachus exposed to sub-lethal cocentration of the pesticide for 30 days. Observed under Scanning Electron Microscope, the effect include lost hepatic architecture, hepatocyte degeneration, shrunken glomerulus, damaged Bowman’s capsule, damaged tubules and spills of RBC in the tissue section. Consumption of such fishes also puts human under severe health risks.
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During Sept 2019-Feb 2020, a butterfly diversity analysis was conducted using the method of line transect count to determine species diversity in Sandur taluk, Bellary district, Karnataka. In terms of mining activities, habitat loss can pose a possible threat to this region and is expected to be the reason for reducing the abundance of butterfly species in the study area. The present study was conducted to record the diversity of species of butterflies and to investigate the current diversity of butterflies. A A total of 56 butterfly species belonging to 05 families have been recorded, namely Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lyncaenidae and Hesperiidae. This is the first research in this field on butterfly diversity. Our goal is to explore and record the butterfly fauna, which will be a useful butterfly conservation forum and a quantitative diversity analysis.
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