The current study looks at the diversity and distribution of water birds in the wetlands of Solapur’s Ujani Reservoir. A total of fifteen separate study locations were chosen from the outskirts of the Ujani Water reservoir, and a two-year study was conducted. Throughout the study period, a checklist of water birds was created for each of the study sites. During the examination, 81 water birds from 59 genera, 11 orders, and 23 families were discovered. Scolopacidae was found to be the dominant family at all of the study sites. The classification was based on feeding guilds, abundance, IUCN status, microhabitats, and migratory status, among other factors. Nearly 36% of feeding guilds were carnivores, 25% were omnivores, 9% were insectivores, 6% were piscivores, and 5% were herbivores, according to feeding guilds. Some of the birds had a firm preference for a single microhabitat, while others favoured dual microhabitats. The remainder birds had various microhabitats. Five species were divers, 15 were swimmers, 19 were large waders, 27 were small waders, and 15 were areal foragers, according to the niche selection study. However, 26 species were resident, 19 were migratory, and 36 were resident migratory based on migratory status. According to the IUCN red list, 76 species are Least Concerned, 6 are Near Threatened, 2 are Vulnerable, and 1 is Endangered. Based on the findings of this study, it can be stated that bird distribution among diverse places has demonstrated significant variation. The variance could be attributed to food availability, human influence, and water availability.
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In freshwater bodies such as lakes, wetlands, rivers, streams, reservoirs, and so on, aquatic insects are the most abundant group of species. A pond ecosystem is a body of standing water that serves as a critical habitat for a wide range of species, including fish, crustaceans, insects, and amphibians. Aquatic insects are excellent bioindicators of water quality for assessing contamination in both short and long-term events. Less or more aquatic insects provide data that can be used to measure the extent of environmental damage and its possible effects on other living species. From August 2017 to January 2018, this study shows the diversity and distribution of aquatic insects from the pond ecosystem in Kilpudupakkam, Cheyyar, Thiruvannamalai District. Scoop nets and hand nets were used to capture the aquatic insects. They were later identified with the help of original literature. Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Diptera, and Lepidoptera are the seven orders of insects known. When compared to other orders and diversity indices, the order Hemiptera (33.63 percent) has the highest population of pond ecosystems. Coleoptera (27.21 percent), Odonata (14.98), Ephemeroptera (8.56 percent), Trichoptera (7.64 percent), Diptera (5.50 percent), and Lepidoptera (5.50 percent) were the orders following Hemiptera (2.44 percent ).
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Nematode faunal analysis provides a powerful tool for diagnosis of the complexity and status of soil food webs and degree of stability of an ecosystem. There are very few studies on ecological analysis based on nematode diversity of protected areas such as Biological reserves and National Parks. The present study is aim at, to ascertain the ecological stability and also assess the impact of changing land use/environment in protected reserve forest of Kaziranga National Park, Assam Soil samples collected from forest area of this Park revealed the presence of 119 nematode species representing 86 genera, grouped under twelve orders, twenty-one superfamilies and thirty-five families. Taxonomic observations on the community structure of soil inhabiting nematodes in the forests of this Park, found that, in generic as well as species diversity order Dorylaimida represented the highest (Genera 44% and Species 51%) respectively and least were found in the orders Aphelenchida, Chromadorida and Triplonchida (Genera 1%, species 0.84% each). Trophic group analysis of forest area of this Park showed that, in generic as well as species diversity bacteriovores representing highest share of (33%) genera and (26%) Species and least was found in the fungal feeders in generic as well as species diversity (14%). Among the twenty one superfamilies recorded, Dorylaimoidea (genera 17% and species 18%) constituted the most dominant group followed by Tylenchoidea (genera 12% and 10% species); Tylencholaimoidea (genera 9% and species 12%); Belondiroidea (genera 8% and species 10%); Cephaloboidea (genera 7% and species 6%) Rhabditoidea (genera 7% and species 5%), Criconematoidea (genera 5% and species 7% each), Mononchoidea (genera and species 5% each); Nygolaimoidea (genera 5% and species 4%); Tripyloidea & Plectoidea (genera 3% and species 2.5%), Longidoroidea (genera 2% and species 3%); Actinolaimoidea (genera 2% and species 2.5%). Panagrolaimoidea, Alaimoidea, Teratocephaloidea and Monhysteroidea (genera 2% and species 2%), Leptolaimoidea (genera 1% and species 2%). The superfamilies Trichodoroidea, Aphelenchoidea & Chromadoroidea (genera 1% and species 1%each) were represented by only one species each. The genus Mesodorylaimus (an omnivore) dominated in the forest area.
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