Background: As a result of the rapid expansion of anthropogenic activities, particularly in the aquatic ecosystem, environmental pollution has escalated in recent decades. Under a variety of harsh environmental conditions, marine creatures can be subject to oxidative stress, which causes changes in metabolic components that can be measured to determine the health status of the organism.
The goal of this study is to monitor the effect of Naphthalene on bivalve mussels and to use a large number of biomakers to uncover distinct and distinctive patterns. In order to comprehend the changes in marker enzymes in P. viridis haemolymph, gill, and digestive gland, the green mussels Perna viridis were subjected to naphthalene.
Green mussels were exposed to naphthalene for 28 days in order to examine biomarker alterations. Acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), and aspartate transaminase activity (AST) were measured in mussels P. viridis haemolymph, gill, and digestive gland. After 28 days of naphthalene exposure, the haemolymph had significantly increased levels of all marker enzymes. Marker enzymes were inhibited in the gill and digestive gland, and all of the marker enzymes in the haemolymph, gill, and digestive gland were concentration dependent in the majority of cases. The alterations in marker enzymes found in P. viridis haemolymph and the other two tissues were statistically significant.
Conclusions: The current study found a significant relationship between all biomarkers examined in mussels exposed to naphthalene. Overall, the results show that when compared to tissues, haemolypmh is the most sensitive component to naphthalene exposure, and it might be used as a bioindicator of organic pollution exposure.
Please see the link :- http://mbimph.com/index.php/UPJOZ/article/view/2891
Bombyx mori, the silkworm, has been extensively used as a model for a wide range of research studies and as a representative of lepidopteran insects. The silkworm is a major producer of mulberry silk that has a high commercial value. Silkworms are extremely fragile and susceptible to a variety of pathogenic microbial species that impair the silk cocoon’s productive properties. The level of vulnerability differed between breeds. Biochemical features show an organism’s physiological state and may point to the possibility of employing biochemical markers to assess the health of silkworm breeds. Beauveria bassiana, a fungal infection, is limited to the haemolymph until the host organism dies. Before moving on to other fields of research such as immunology and disease management, a thorough understanding of biochemical interactions and physiological alterations in the haemolymph between host and pathogen in response to infection is required. With this as a backdrop, the dynamics of vital macromolecules in the haemolymph of the 5th instar in three popular silkworm breeds, namely bivoltine double hybrid (CSR 2 x CSR 27) x (CSR 6 x CSR 26), crossbreed (PM CSR2), and bivoltine single hybrid, were investigated in the haemolymph of the 5th instar under stress conditions caused by the fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana in (CSR2 X CSR4). Significant differences were observed in three primary macromolecules chosen for the study, total carbs, proteins, and lipids, in three different breeds. The bivoltine double hybrid, followed by crossbreed, and bivoltine single hybrid, showed the most promising results. In all biochemical parameters studied, bivoltine double hybrid outperformed crossbreed and bivoltine single hybrid, according to the study’s findings. The findings of the study can be utilised to test silkworm breeds and differentiate them.
Please see the link :- http://mbimph.com/index.php/UPJOZ/article/view/2583
Backgrounds: Environmental contamination has increased dramatically in recent decades as a result of an increase in anthropogenic activities, particularly in the aquatic ecosystem. Under a range of harsh environmental conditions, marine organisms can be susceptible to oxidative stress.
The goal of this study is to find individual and distinct patterns of Perna viridis reactions to naphthalene using a wide variety of biomarkers, in order to better understand the changes in oxidative stress and antioxidant defence that occur in the bivalve P. viridis after exposure to naphthalene.
The mussels were exposed to naphthalene for 14 days to assess changes in oxidative stress and antioxidant defence. For oxidative stress markers, the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and carbonyls protein (CP) were examined. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) are antioxidant defence enzymes that were evaluated as part of the study.
After 14 days of naphthalene exposure, the haemolymph includes considerably more carbonyls, proteins, and lipid peroxidation. In the haemolymph of mussels exposed to very low levels of naphthalene for 14 days, a number of antioxidant defence enzymes, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, were regulated. When exposed to naphthalene, antioxidant defence activities were changed. Conclusions: The current study showed a significant association between oxidative stress and antioxidant defences in mussels exposed to naphthalene. Overall, the findings reveal that haemolypmh is the component most vulnerable to oxidative damage, suggesting that antioxidant enzyme activity in P. viridis could be employed as a bioindicator of organic pollution exposure.
Please see the link :- http://mbimph.com/index.php/UPJOZ/article/view/2624
In the absence of an advanced immune system in insects, the melanisation process is the most widespread and one of the most successful methods used by insects to identify pathogens or foreign non-self substances. Thus the main enzyme involved in phenoloxidase (PO) melanin biosynthesis plays a crucial role in insect immunity. In this analysis, the larval blowfly haemolymph (Hemipyrellia tagaliana) was used to demonstrate the existence and activation of prophenoloxidase. In the oxidation assays carried out to test the existence of prophenoloxidase using phenolic substrates, the haemolymph showed favourable outcomes. Phenylthiourea, an inhibitor of PO activity, has been shown to repress this PO activity, whereas activity has been increased when exposed to microbial components such as laminarin, LPS of different bacterial organisms, and zymogen. The results suggested that when exogenous proteases and detergents were added into the assay system, this enzyme (PO) existed in the zymogen state and was activated by proteolytic cleavage. Its calcium-dependent existence was demonstrated by increased PO activity in the presence of Ca2+. These findings conclude that in the larval haemolymph of H, a zymogen of phenoloxidase is found. Tagaliana, which is triggered when exposed to foreign non-self-substances and pathogens by proteolytic cleavage.
Please see the link :- https://mbimph.com/index.php/UPJOZ/article/view/1622
In the deficiency of advanced immune mechanism in insects, the most common and one of the efficient methods used by insects in recognising pathogens or foreign non-self substances is the melanisation process. The primary enzyme involved in melanin biosynthesis by phenoloxidase (PO) thus plays a vital role in insect immunity. In the present study, larval haemolymph of the blowfly, (Hemipyrellia tagaliana) were used to demonstrate the presence of prophenoloxidase and its activating system. The haemolymph showed favourable results in the oxidation assays carried out to test the presence of prophenoloxidase using phenolic substrates. This PO activity was shown to be repressed by phenylthiourea, an inhibitor of PO activity, while the activity was increased when exposed to microbial components such as laminarin, LPS from various bacterial species and zymogen. The results indicated that this enzyme (PO) existed in zymogen state and was activated by proteolytic cleavage when exogenous proteases and detergents were introduced in the assay system. An increased PO activity in the presence of Ca2+ showed its calcium-dependent nature. These results conclude that a zymogen of phenoloxidase is found in the larval haemolymph of the H. tagaliana, which is activated by proteolytic cleavage when exposed to foreign non-self-substances and pathogens.
Please see the link :- https://mbimph.com/index.php/UPJOZ/article/view/1622