HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN KIDNEY OF FRESHWATER TELEOST FISH Barbus carnaticus (JERDON, 1849) EXPOSED TO SUB LETHAL CONCENTRATION OF ATRAZINE |  UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of atrazine on the kidney of Barbus carnaticus using histological analysis. Sublethal concentrations were defined as 1/10th of the relevant LC 50 values. Sublethal amounts of atrazine caused significant changes in the histological structure of the kidney, according to the findings. After observing all of the changes in the kidney, it was determined that utilising chemical fertilisers, herbicides, and pesticides should be done with caution. They are wreaking havoc on aquatic life.

Please see the link :- http://mbimph.com/index.php/UPJOZ/article/view/2666

PATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF INTESTINE IN THE INDIAN BULL FROG, Hoplobatrachus tigerinus DAUDIN PARASITIZED WITH Tremiorchis ranarum (DIGENEA: PLAGIORCHIIDAE) FROM YSR DISTRICT, ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA | UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY

 Hoplobatrachus tigerinus Daudin, an Indian bull frog, was shown to be parasitized by Tremiorchis ranarum Mehra et Negi, a digenean. This parasite was discovered in the intestine of the host during a research of helminth parasites in amphibians from multiple locations in the YSR district of Andhra Pradesh. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate the morphological and diagnostic properties of Tremiorchis ranarum, as well as its pathological effects on the host intestinal tissues to determine the level of damage. The destruction of intestinal villi, inflammatory fibrosis, inflammation of villi at the site of parasite attachment, hyperplasia and metaplasia, vacuolation of submucosal cells, and degeneration of intestinal layers due to proliferative alterations are some of the histopathogical impacts. A thickening of the mucosa and injury to the mucosa are also harmful outcomes.



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BUTACHLOR INDUCED SERUM BIOCHEMICAL ANOMALIES CORRELATED WITH HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN INTESTINAL TISSUE OF Clarias batrachus (LINN.): In-vivo STUDY | UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY

The aim of this study was to see how butachlor (2-chloro-2′, 6′-diethyl-N – butoxymethyl) acetanilide affected serum total protein and glucose levels, as well as histopathological changes in the small intestine, especially in the proximal part (duodenum) of the walking catfish Clarias batrachus (Linn.). The experimental fishes were given sublethal doses (1.5 l/ L, or 1/36th of the LC50) for 7, 14, and 21 days, respectively, after the 96 hour LC50 of butachlor for the fish was calculated using probit regression. By puncturing the caudal vein, blood samples were obtained in heparinized syringes, and serum was extracted according to standard protocol. The intestine’s proximal section was dissected out and fixed in aqueous Bouin’s fixative. Haemotoxylin and eosine were used to double stain paraffin spread bits, which were then placed in DPX and viewed using an Olympus 2000 trinocular compound microscope. Canon ISUS 130X digital camera was used to take light microphotographs. The total protein and glucose levels in the blood were measured according to standard procedures. In contrast to control fish, the LM analysis of intestinal tissues of treated fish revealed degeneration in the mucosa, submucosa, and muscularis mucosa area of the duodenum. Degeneration was evident in the tunica mucosa and sub mucosa layer after 7 and 14 days of butachlor exposure, as evidenced by erosion of villi brush borders and basal lamina, hypertrophy of goblet cells, appearance of a large number of vacuoles in the sub mucosa zone, and migration of lymphoid tissues in the lamina proporia. Butachlor exposure for a longer period of time (28 days) resulted in luminal widening, necrosis of goblet cells, roblet cells, and entero-endocrine cells. Aside from that, extensive haemorrhages and a congested absorptive area were clearly visible. In comparison to placebo, biochemical findings of treated fish revealed a substantial decrease in serum total protein and irregular fluctuations in glucose levels. The decreased absorption rate of protein by the altered intestinal enterocytes under butachlor stress can be linked to a substantial (p0.05) consistent decline in serum protein. As a result, elevated serum protein levels linked to histopathological changes in the proximal intestine of fish may be used as a bio-indicator of polluted waterways.

Please see the link :- https://mbimph.com/index.php/UPJOZ/article/view/2067

IMPACT OF UREA ON MONOGASTRIC MAMMALIAN SYSTEM: A SHORT TERM STUDY | UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY

In the mammalian body, urea is a naturally occurring end product of amino acid metabolism. It’s also a widely used fertiliser that’s considered nontoxic. However, repeated exposure to urea has been linked to damage to vital organs such as the liver and kidneys. The aim of this study was to look at the histopathological effects of urea on the liver, kidney, and testis, as well as their relationship to serum biomarkers like ALT and AST, and to look into sperm head anomalies. A total of 45 Swiss albino mice were used in the study, with each group consisting of five mice. Group I was retained as the control group and was fed a standard diet. The remaining animals were given different urea doses (50 percent and 75 percent of LD50 concentrations) at various hour intervals (24, 48, 72, and 96 hours). All of the animals were kept in a controlled environment. The increased dose of urea resulted in a slow loss of body weight in the treated mice. In the treatment group mice, tissue sections showed histological changes in the organs, which could be linked to the increased serum ALT, AST, and sperm head anomaly. The study’s findings also confirmed the toxic effects of urea, a seemingly non-toxic compound, when given in high and repeated doses. The test compound is discovered to seriously harm the histological architecture as well as the function of the liver, kidney, and testis.

Please see the link :- https://mbimph.com/index.php/UPJOZ/article/view/1875

HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EFFECT OF PESTICIDE PROFENOFOS ON THE SKIN OF AIR BREATHING TELEOST Channa gachua | UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY

The effect of pesticide profenofos (organophosphate), on the skin of air breathing fish Channa gachua were studied. The histopathological alteration in the skin have been observed in Laboratory Condition after exposing to sub-lethal concentration of Profenofos (0.06 ppm) during different time period (10 days, 15 days and 20 days). The gross pathological changes after profenofos exposed includes:- The epithelial cells start separating, dermal tissues disorganised. The thickness of skin decreased, reduction in number and size of epidermal cells also occur. On the basis of the above finding it is concluded that widely used profenofos in agriculture has produced significant effects on skin of air breathing fish Channa gachua.

Please see the link :- https://mbimph.com/index.php/UPJOZ/article/view/1691

HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EFFECT OF PESTICIDE PROFENOFOS ON THE SKIN OF AIR BREATHING TELEOST Channa gachua | UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY

The effect of pesticide profenofos (organophosphate), on the skin of air breathing fish Channa gachua were studied. The histopathological alteration in the skin have been observed in Laboratory Condition after exposing to sub-lethal concentration of Profenofos (0.06 ppm) during different time period (10 days, 15 days and 20 days). The gross pathological changes after profenofos exposed includes:- The epithelial cells start separating, dermal tissues disorganised. The thickness of skin decreased, reduction in number and size of epidermal cells also occur. On the basis of the above finding it is concluded that widely used profenofos in agriculture has produced significant effects on skin of air breathing fish Channa gachua.

Please see the link :-  https://mbimph.com/index.php/UPJOZ/article/view/1691

HISTOPATHOLOGY OF LIVER AND KIDNEY OF TELEOST, Clarias batrachus OF ARSENIC CONTAMINATED CHHILPURA POND WATER | UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY

Arsenic contamination in natural water resources has become a great task throughout the world which poses serious health problems, being the toxic agent in the ecosystem. The fishes are exposed to it through their skin, gills and by the intake of arsenic contaminated food and water. In the present investigation histological examination of liver and kidney of Chhilpura pond water treated fishes (Clarias batrachus) has severe histopathological changes like lobules of hepatocyte cell, lytic hepatocytes, mild infiltration, haemorrhage, disruption of normal architecture and fatty degeneration steatosis. In kidney it causes, inflammation, haemorrhage and shrinkage of glomerulus, congestion of vessels and rapture of Bowman’s capsules, etc. The present investigation suggested that the arsenic contaminated water showing high toxicity level.

Please see the link :- https://mbimph.com/index.php/UPJOZ/article/view/1588

HISTOPATHOLOGY OF LIVER AND KIDNEY OF TELEOST, Clarias batrachus OF ARSENIC CONTAMINATED CHHILPURA POND WATER |UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY

Arsenic contamination in natural water resources has become a great task throughout the world which poses serious health problems, being the toxic agent in the ecosystem. The fishes are exposed to it through their skin, gills and by the intake of arsenic contaminated food and water. In the present investigation histological examination of liver and kidney of Chhilpura pond water treated fishes (Clarias batrachus) has severe histopathological changes like lobules of hepatocyte cell, lytic hepatocytes, mild infiltration, haemorrhage, disruption of normal architecture and fatty degeneration steatosis. In kidney it causes, inflammation, haemorrhage and shrinkage of glomerulus, congestion of vessels and rapture of Bowman’s capsules, etc. The present investigation suggested that the arsenic contaminated water showing high toxicity level.

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HISTOPATHOLOGICAL ALTERATIONS IN THE STOMACH OF FRESHWATER FISH Channa punctatus UNDER CHLORPYRIFOS TOXICITY | UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY

The non-judicious use of pesticides sprayed in the agricultural lands ultimately finds their way to aquatic ecosystems. The Aquatic ecosystems face the threat of biodiversity loss due to toxicity induced by these agro-chemicals. Other than targeted pests, pesticides affect a wide range of non-target organisms, such as invertebrates and fish inhabiting aquatic environments. Among various physiological changes, histopathological alterations in fish intestines due to organophosphate toxicity is the basic tool for finding the potency of these chemicals in mitigating fish health. Therefore the present study deals with the impact of Chlorpyrifos on histopathology of the stomach of C. punctatus in which set of twelve fish were exposed to 0, 5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 5.5 and 6.5 µl/L concentration of Chlorpyrifos. The lethal concentration (LC50) value of Chlorpyrifos was calculated as 4.5 µl /L for 96 hours of exposure. The fish were exposed to three sublethal concentrations (0.15, 0.25 and 0.35 µl/L) of Chlorpyrifos for 15 and 30 days respectively. Fishes showed severe histological changes in stomach. The degenerative changes included degeneration of serosa layer, columnar epithelium and goblet cells were analysed and a section of stomach also showed loosely arranged of muscle layers, large vacuolation in the mucosa as well as in the sub mucosa region. Presence of scattered blood cells in the submucosa and muscularis layer of the stomach tissue was also observed. This clearly demonstrates that the sublethal concentrations of Chlorpyrifos have a deleterious effect on the stomach of C. punctatus. Therefore the pesticide can be considered as a potent toxic pollutant to fishes whose entry to natural waterbodies should be checked from all point and non-point sources.

Please read full article – http://mbimph.com/index.php/UPJOZ/article/view/1393

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