The grape thrips (Thrips palmi) is a major pest that causes significant losses in commercial grape production (Vitis vinifera L.). In West Bengal, India, it has become a significant pest of grape vine. The efficacy of neonicotinoid insecticides spinetoram 10% w/w + sulfoxaflor 30% w/w WG @ 100, 120, and 140 a.i. g /ha, spinetoram 12 percent SC w/v (11.7 percent w/w), sulfoxaflor 24 percent w/v (21.8 percent w/w) SC, emamectin benzoate 5% SG and bu Spinetoram 10% w/w + sulfoxaflor 30% w/w WG @ 140 g a.i./ha was the most effective against thrips on grapes, and it was on par with spinetoram 10% + sulfoxaflor 30% WG @ 120 g a.i./ha. The same tendencies can be seen in yield. The pesticides tested were also found to be less toxic to predators such as Menochilus sp., Syrphus sp., and Chrysoperla sp.
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The leaf hopper (Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida.) wreaks havoc on grape vines (Vitis vinifera L.). In West Bengal, the pest is a limiting factor in the commercial production of grapes and many other crops. To compare their efficacy against leaf hopper, one dosage of spinetoram 10 percent w/w + sulfoxaflor 30 percent w/w WG @ 100, 120, and 140 a.i. g /ha, one dose of spinetoram 12 percent SC w/v (11.7 percent w/w), sulfoxaflor 24 percent w/v (21.8 percent w/w) SC, emamectin benzoate 5 The spinetoram 10% w/w + sulfoxaflor 30% w/w WG @ 140 g a.i./ha offered the best control of leaf hopper, followed by spinetoram 10% w/w + sulfoxaflor 30% w/w WG @ 120 g a.i./ha. The same tendencies have been seen in grape yield. The insecticides tested were also found to be highly safe to grape insect-pest predators such as Menochilus sp., Syrphus sp., and Chrysoperla sp.
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An comprehensive field survey was conducted in different vegetable ecosystems of the Kashmir Valley from 2014 to 2019 to investigate aphid pests and their naturally occurring bio-control agents (parasitoids and predators). A thorough literature review of aphids identified from the Jammu and Kashmir area was also conducted. As a result of these studies, it was determined that in Jammu and Kashmir, 18 species of aphids belonging to 12 genera infest 26 species and 30 varieties of vegetable crops (J&K). Aphis craccivora Koch, Aphis fabae solanella Theobald, Aphis gossypii Glover, Brevicoryne brassicae (Linnaeus), and Myzus persicae are the most common aphid species that infest a wide range of vegetable plant species (Sulzer). It was also discovered that at least 29 insect predators and 17 parasitoids exist naturally in J&K’s vegetable ecosystems to eradicate these aphid species. Adalia tetraspilota (Hope), Coccinella septempunctata L., Cheilomenes sexmaculatus Fabricius, and Hippodamia variegata are some of the most common natural enemies (Goe.), Aphidius matricariae Haliday, Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh), Chrysoperla zastrowi Sillemi (Esben-Petersen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae); Episyrphus balteatus DeGeer, Melanostoma univitatum (Wiedemann), Sphaerophoria scripta (Linnae (Hymenoptera : Braconidae). In conclusion, this study provides a detailed account of aphids and their natural enemies in relation to vegetable crops in the J&K area. This work will be useful in studies involving the development of strategies for an Integrated Aphid Control Program, especially through the use of natural bio-control agents.
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